Saturday, November 7, 2015

National Symbols of India

As an Indian, we must have in-depth knowledge of our National Symbols. This topic has also always been beloved to examiners. We all have general details on this topic but here is an exhaustive article to help you in your competitive examinations.

The National Flag

The national flag is a horizontal tricolour of deep saffron (Kesari) (representing 'courage and sacrifice') at the top, white ('peace and truth') in the middle, dark green ('faith and chivalry') at the bottom in equal proportion and the nave blue Ashok chakra at the centre, has gone through many changes in design and color over a period of time. The journey of the Indian national flag represented the freedom struggle earlier and now it represents free India.

Its design is that of the wheel which appear on the abacus of the Sarnath lion capital of Ashoka. Its diameter approximates the width of the white band. It has 24 spokes.
Our national flag was "born" on 22nd July 1947 and hosted at the Council House on 15th August 1947. 

The national flag of India was designed by Lt. Shri Pingali Venkayya.
(Image Source https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/4/41/Flag_of_India.svg/200px-Flag_of_India.svg.png)

National Emblem

The state emblem of India is an adaptation from the Sarnath Lion, at the capital of Ashoka the Emperor. The Government adopted the emblem on 26th January 1950, the day when India became a republic. In the national emblem, only three lions are visible and the fourth one is hidden from the view. At the center of the abacus, there is a chakra(wheel) which symbolizes the Dharma Chakra(Eternal wheel of law).

There is a bull, a galloping horse, an elephant and a lion, separated by intervening wheels over a bull on the right and a horse on the left in the visible part of the emblem.

Forming an integral part of the emblem is the motto inscribed below the abacus in Devanagari script: "Satyameva jayate"(English: Truth Alone Triumphs), a quote taken from Mundaka Upanishad, the concluding part of the sacred Hindu Vedas. (Image Source https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Emblem_of_India.svg)

National Song      

India's national song "Vande Mataram" was composed in Sanskrit by famous poet Bankimchandra Chatterjee in the year 1875. This song appears in the Bengali novel 'Anand math'.


Initially 'Vande Mataram' was the national anthem of India, but after independence 'Jana - Gana - Mana' was adopted as the national anthem.This was done because non-Hindu communities in India had considered Vande Mataram as biased. These communities felt that the nation was represented by 'Maa Durga' in the song so that is why it was made the national song of India and not the national anthem.

National Anthem

The national anthem of India 'Jana - Gana - Mana' was composed by the great poet Rabindranath Tagore and was adopted by the constituent assembly of India on January 24th, 1950. Jana - gana - mana was first sung on 27th December 1911 at the Calcutta session of the Indian National congress. The song Jana - Gana - Mana, consists of five stanzas. Playing time of the full version of the National Anthem is approximately 52 seconds.

National Currency  

The symbol is a combination of both Devanagari letter ' र ' and Roman letter 'R' with a stripe cutting at the middle to represent the tricolor. It also means equality. 
(Img Src https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Indian_Rupee_symbol.svg)

National Calendar

At the time of independence, the Govt. of India followed the Gregorian calendar based on the Christian era.
The Saka era is adopted as the basis of the National Calendar. The Saka year has the normal 365 days and begins with Chaitra as its first month.The days of the Saka's calendar have a permanent correspondence with the dates of the Gregorian Calendar, Chaitra 1 falling on March 22 in a normal year and on March 21 in a Leap Year.The National Calendar commenced on Chaitra 1 Saka, 1879 corresponding to March 22, 1957A.D.

National Animal 


The Tiger(Panthera Tigris, Linnaeus) is the national animal of India. Tiger is also called the lord of Jungles. The national animal of India is a rich-colored well-striped animal with a short coat. As the national animal of India, tiger symbolizes India's wildlife wealth. The combination of grace, strength, agility and enormous power has earned the tiger great respect and high esteem.

The Government of India, under its "Project Tiger" program, started a massive effort to preserve the tiger population in April 1973. So far, 23 tiger reserves have been established in the country under this project. Out of the eight races of the Royal Bengal Tiger is found throughout the country and also in the neighboring countries like Nepal, Bhutan, and Bangladesh.

National Bird 

The Indian peacock, Pavo cristatus (Linnaeus), is the national bird of India. It is a symbol of grace, joy, beauty and love. Peacock is a colorful, swan-sized bird with a fan-shaped crest of feathers on its head, a white patch under the eye and a long slender neck. Peacock is a large and majestic bird.

The male of the species is more colorful than the female with a glistening blue breast and neck and a spectacular bronze-green tail of around 200 elongated feathers. The female is brownish, slightly smaller than the male and lacks the tail. The dance of the male peacock by fanning out the tail and preening its feathers is a gorgeous sight.In India the peacock wildlife(protection) Act, 1972.  

National Flower

Lotus is the National flower of India. The Lotus symbolizes spirituality, fruitfulness, wealth, knowledge and illumination. The most important thing about lotus is that even after growing in murky water it is untouched by its impurity. The 'Lotus' or water lily is an aquatic plant of Nymphaea species with broad floating leaves and bright aromatic flowers that grow only in shallow waters. on the other hand, the lotus symbolizes purity of heart and mind.

India is rich in flora. Currently available data place India in the tenth position in the world and fourth in Asia in plant diversity. From about 70 per cent geographical area surveyed so far, 47,000 species of plants have been described by the Botanical Survey of India(BSI). Lotuses cherished for their tranquil beauty, are delightful to take a look at as their blossoms open on the pond's surface.

National River

The Ganga is the National river of India. The Ganga or the Ganges is the longest river of India flowing over 2,510 km of the mountains, valleys and plains. It originates in the snowfields of the Gangotri Glacier in the Himalayas as Bhagirathi River. It is later joined by other rivers such as the Alaknanda, Yamuna, Son, Gumti, Kosi and Ghagra.

For Hindus, the river ganga is the most sacred river on Earth. Many religious ceremonial occasions are held on the banks of the ganga river at the cities like Varanasi, Haridwar & Allahabad.

Mangifera indica (Manguier 4)
National Fruit 

Mangoes are native to India and thus truly Indian. Since time immemorial, mangoes have been cultivated in India. In Mangifera indica, the mango tree is one of the most important and widely cultivated fruit trees of the tropical world. It's Juicy fruit is a rich source of vitamins A, C and D.In India there are over 100 varieties of mangoes, in different sizes, shapes, and colors, mangoes have been cultivated in India from time immemorial.

National Tree 

Banyantree.jpg
The Banyan tree represents eternal life, because of its ever expanding branches.Indian fig tree, ficus benghalensis, whose branches root themselves like new trees over a large area. The roots then give rise to more trunks and branches. Because of this tree is considered immoral and is an integral part of the myths and legends of India.

Even today, the banyan tree is the focal point of village life and the village council meets under the shade of this tree.

 National sports

Hockey is the National Game of India. India won the first Olympic hockey gold in 1928, Amsterdam, beating the Netherlands 3-0. In Hockey, India has an excellent record with 8 Olympic gold medals. Indian hockey team won 6 successive Olympic gold medals.

The Indian team also won the 1975 world cup beside more medals (silver & bronze medal). The Indian Hockey Federation gained global affiliation in 1927 & joined the International Hockey Federation(IFH).

National Standard Time (IST)

India has only one standard time. India is 5.5 hours ahead of GMT/UTC, 4.5 hours behind Australian Eastern Standard Time and 10.5 hours ahead of American Eastern Standard Time.

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